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Ultrasonic welding is an industrial technique that applies high-frequency ultrasonic acoustic vibrations to two pieces being held together to create a solid-state weld. A joint is created at the place they are fused. Ultrasonic welding is most often used for metals and plastics and especially for joining pieces of different materials.
With ultrasonic welding, there is no adhesive, soldering materials, or nails used. To ultrasonic weld metals together, high pressure and friction of pieces the are used. With plastics, the plastic absorbs vibrational energy and causes local melting which fuses the pieces together. The frequency for ultrasonic welding can range from 15 kHz to 70 kHz.
- A press to assemble parts using pressure
- An anvil or fixture where the parts are placed to allow the ultrasonic vibration to be directed to the (interfaces)
- Ultrasonic stack compromising of a converter that changes the electrical signal into a mechanical vibration, a booster (amplitude transformer) that modifies the vibration, and a welding tool (sonotrode) that applies the vibration to the pieces to be welded
- An electronic ultrasonic generator creates high voltage in the required ultrasonic frequency
- A controller to control the press and distribution of the ultrasonic energy
- Close welding is where the weld tool is applied less than 6.35mm from the assembly joint
- Distant welding is where the weld tool is applied more than 6.35 mm from the assembly joint
- Inserting involves inserting metal components into holes in the molding and embedding them using ultrasonic welding
- Spot welding uses ultrasonic welding without premade holes or energy directors
- Staking melts and reforms a post on molding to mechanically lock dissimilar materials together
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